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【资讯翻译】Early Exclusive Breastfeeding Associated With Longer Telome...

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发表于 2016-7-29 09:58:14 | 显示全部楼层 |阅读模式
Early Exclusive Breastfeeding Associated With Longer Telomeres In Latino Preschoolers, UCSF Study


Infants who are exclusively breastfed early in life are more likely by age 4 or 5 to have longer telomeres, the protective bits of DNA that cap the ends of chromosomes in cells. In older adults, shorter telomeres are associated with a greater likelihood of developing conditions of aging, such as heart disease, diabetes and some cancers.
Telomeres, which are measured in white blood cells, generally become shorter with age, when the cell can no longer regenerate through cell division. But there is evidence that a significant amount of telomere shortening occurs during early childhood.

In their study of Latino children, published July 20, 2016, in the American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, UCSF scientists tracked the feeding habits of the offspring of 121 Latina mothers at two hospitals: UCSF Medical Center and Priscilla Chan and Mark Zuckerberg San Francisco General Hospital and Trauma Center. The mothers were generally low-income, with almost all participating in the Special Supplemental Food Program for Women, Infants and Children (WIC), and the majority were foreign born and Spanish speaking.

The researchers, led by Janet Wojcicki, PhD, associate professor of pediatrics and epidemiology at UCSF Benioff Children’s Hospital San Francisco, found that breastfeeding at 4 to 6 weeks of age — and to a lesser extent, any breastfeeding — was associated with longer telomeres when children were evaluated at age 4 or 5.
Average telomere length in exclusively breastfed children was between 350 and 450 DNA base pairs – or approximately 5 percent – longer than in the other children.
“Being exclusively breastfed early may have lifelong benefits for health, and there are too few women who are exclusively breastfeeding,” Wojcicki said.

Only 38 percent of mothers in the study were exclusively breastfeeding their babies at 4 to 6 weeks of age, contrary to the American Academy of Pediatrics’ recommendation that women exclusively feed their infants breast milk for the first six months and continue breastfeeding until at least one year, while introducing solid foods.

Earlier studies have found that breastfeeding plays a role in shaping the infant immune system and the gut microbiome, and that it may be somewhat protective against obesity.

Wojcicki said that to her knowledge this is the first study of the association of breastfeeding and diet with telomere shortness early in life.

Exposures to oxidative stress and inflammation are associated with faster telomere shortening in adults. The protective effect of breastfeeding against inflammation might help explain the association between exclusive early breastfeeding and longer telomeres during preschool years, the researchers speculated. It is not clear how telomere length might mediate health effects.

Previous studies in adults found that certain foods, such as cereal fiber and diets abundant in fruit and vegetables, are not only more likely to protect against obesity, but also are associated with longer telomere length.

Additionally, the study found that approximately 42 percent of children tested were consuming soda by age 3, and 10 percent of 3-year-olds drank soda four or more times weekly. These children showed a much faster rate of telomere shortening than the children who drank less or no soda.

The study was funded by the National Institutes of Health, the Hellman Health Foundation, the Robert Wood Johnson Health and Society Scholars Program, the NASPGHAN Foundation and the UCSF Clinical and Translational Science Institute.

Additional UCSF co-authors are Elizabeth Blackburn, PhD, professor of biochemistry and biophysics, who previously won a Novel Prize for the discovery of how chromosomes within cells are protected by telomeres; Elissa Epel, PhD, professor of psychiatry; Melvin Heyman, MD, MPH, professor of pediatrics; associate researcher Jue Lin, PhD, and research assistant Deena Elwan.


信源地址:http://www.biospace.com/News/early-exclusive-breastfeeding-associated-with/427496/source=Featured

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发表于 2016-7-29 10:09:34 | 显示全部楼层
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发表于 2016-8-1 12:49:08 | 显示全部楼层
UCSF研究表明,早期母乳喂养与拉丁裔学龄前儿童较长的端粒相关

生命早期接受母乳喂养的婴儿在4、5岁时端粒(给细胞中染色体末端‘带帽’,用以保护DNA的片段)可能更长。在老年人中,较短的端粒与更大的随衰老带来的疾病发生的可能性相关,如心脏病、糖尿病和一些癌症。

当白细胞不能通过细胞分裂再生时,细胞中检测到的端粒通常随着年龄的增长而变短。但有证据表明,大量的端粒缩短发生在童年早期。

UCSF的科学家追踪了两家医院(UCSF医疗中心和陈慧娴、马克•扎克伯格综合医院及创伤中心)121位拉丁裔母亲喂养幼儿的习惯,这项对拉丁裔儿童的研究于2016年7月20日发表在《美国临床营养杂志》上。这些母亲通常收入低,几乎所有人都参与了‘妇女、婴儿和儿童特别食品补充计划(WIC)’,多数出生在国外且说西班牙语。

由UCSF贝尼奥夫儿童医院儿科和流行病学副教授Janet Wojcicki博士领导的研究团队发现,婴儿在4至6周龄大时由母乳喂养,与在4、5岁评估时有较长端粒相关。

纯母乳喂养的儿童的平均端粒长度在350-450个DNA碱基对之间,大约比其他儿童的端粒长5%。

“早期接受纯母乳喂养可能在健康上终身受益,但是纯母乳喂养的女性太少了,”Wojcicki说。

美国儿科学会的指南建议母亲前六个月纯母乳喂养婴儿,之后添加辅食并继续母乳喂养直到至少一周岁。与指南相反,研究中只有38%的母亲在4-6周龄时纯母乳喂养他们的孩子。

此前的研究发现,母乳喂养在塑造婴儿的免疫系统和肠道微生物中发挥作用,并可能预防肥胖。

Wojcicki说,据她所知,这是第一个母乳喂养和饮食与生命早期端粒缩短相关性的研究。

氧化应激和炎症的暴露与成人端粒缩短加快相关。研究人员推测,母乳喂养抵抗炎症的保护作用可能有助于解释早期母乳喂养和学龄前更长的端粒之间的相关性。端粒长度如何介导对健康的影响尚不清楚。

早先在成年人中的研究发现,某些食物,比如谷物纤维以及含有丰富水果和蔬菜的饮食,不仅更容易预防肥胖,而且与端粒长度增加有关。

此外,研究发现,参与试验的儿童中大约42%在3岁时就喝苏打饮料,10%的3岁儿童每周喝4次及以上苏打饮料。这些儿童的端粒缩短速度显著快于那些不喝或少喝苏打饮料的儿童。

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 楼主| 发表于 2016-8-2 16:21:17 | 显示全部楼层
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